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2012年大学英语四级答案解析

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2012年6月大学英语四级考试已经结束,试题及参考答案已全部更新完毕,爱英语吧祝您顺利通过考试!

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

1.On Excessive Packaging

  In recent years, with the economy growing, allkinds of goods are flowing into our life. The packaging of goods becomes moreand more attracting our eyes. However, the problem of excessive packaging hasaroused people’s wide concern。

  This phenomenon exists for a number of reasons。

  For one thing, the business has seen through themind of most consumers who are face-saving, for they thought that the morebeautiful the packaging of goods is, the best people like. For another thing, excessivepackaging can make the majority of merchants get high profit for the cheapcommodity by improving price. Perhaps the primary reason lies that the form faroutweighs the content。

  In my opinion, it is more advisable to focus on the quality of goods than to decorateits appearance. So, it is urgent that immediate measures should be taken tostop the situation. Only in this way can we reduce unnecessary waste and have arational and pure shopping condition, making our money cost worthwhile。

  2.On Excessive Packaging

  Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over excessive packaging in our country。It is known to all that excessive packaging has negative influences on consumers。And people would turn pale at the very mention of excessive packaging。There are many reasons why excessive packaging emerges, but in general, they come down to three major ones。

  For one thing, I argue, Chinese consumers care more about packaging than product itself。For another, the packaging often represents the quality of product, so the manufacturer is eager to do excessive packaging。But the prime reason is perhaps that the department concerned turns a blind eye to this irrational phenomenon。In regard to this problem, steps should be taken to minimize it。The first thing we should do is to emphasize product's quality over its packaging. Another thing we can do is to strengthen the supervision on excessive packaging。

  In addition, the Weibo is one of the most effective media that remind consumers to spend reasonably。

  3.On Excessive Packaging

  Nowadays, the phenomenon of excessive packaging has becomingincreasingly serious. Lots of packages have already deviated from theiroriginal function. Excessive packaging is a serious waste phenomenon, which deserves our special attention and penetrating research。

  There are many reasons accounting forexcessive packaging. Firstly, the promotion effects of excessive packaging havebeen greatly exaggerated by interest-driven merchants. Furthermore, it is irrationalconsumption that led to the phenomenon of excessive packaging. The last but notthe least, as everyone sees it that distempered of the related laws andregulations and inadequate enforcement of the law together contributed tothis phenomenon。

  As far as I amconcerned, excessive packaging not only creates waste of resources, but alsocauses unnecessary environment pollution, so we should try our best toeliminate this phenomenon completely. To avoid excessive packaging, we shouldincrease our awareness of this phenomenon and change our ideas towards it. Weshould also establish the atmosphere of simple packaging, advocate appropriate packagingand build a conservation-minded society。

  4.On Excessive Packaging

  Nowadays,with the rapid development of national economy and elevation of culturaldemands, more and more commodities with luxury packaging appear in stores orsupermarkets. Lots of people select these commodities to present as gifts tobosses, friends or relatives at festivals。

  This phenomenon, which resulted by several factors, arouses hot discussions amongpeople. One of these reasons is the psychology of extravagance-showing among peopleof all ranks. They tend to feel inferior if their presents look common andsimple. On the other hand, lots of merchants, out of the consideration of theircommercial profits, use all their efforts to promote their goods, which need tobe luxuriously packaged as to meet the demands of market. Last but not theleast, some people select these over packaging commodities to please theirbosses in order to get a promotion。

  Overall, this phenomenon is an outcome of the market economy. It can promote the developmentof economy, but, at the same time, leads to the corruption of social morality. Weshould take all measures to reduce the production of these commodities as tocontrol social environment。

5 Excessive Packaging

In this highly commercialized society, the merchants have been making all the effects to add to the attraction of their products. The phenomenon is extremely prevalent that the packages themselves cost much more than the goods in them. Therefore, consumers in growing numbers express serious concerns over this problem.

There are several factors that can account for this phenomenon. To begin with, numerous people buy the goods in attractive packages as gifts for their friends, parents, and leaders. In this case, extravagant packages can assist them to demonstrate their care, respect, and loyalty. Moreover, the market has been saturated with homogeneous products. In order to differentiate their products from those of others’ quickly and directly, the manufacturers are more than willing to invest in the packaging. Additionally, the sellers may employ the vivid and exquisite packages as the tactic to appeal to their consumers, who focus no attention on the prices but the psychological satisfaction from the admirable looks from their friends, even the passers-by, when they walk on the street with an eye-catching and flamboyant packages in their hands. (从买家、制造商和卖家三方面各提供一个理由)

From my perspective, the excessive packaging is extremely wasteful. After all, we spend our money on the products in the packages rather than the beautiful but useless paper and boxes that will be discarded as soon as we unwrap them. I hope that the manufacturer will divert more attention to the quality of their products so that consumers can purchase them in more reasonable prices.

Small Schools Rising

This year's list of the top 100 high schools shows that today, those with fewer students are flourishing.

Fifty years ago, they were the latest thing in educational reform: big, modern, suburban high schools with students counted in the thousands. As baby boomers (二战后婴儿潮时期出生的人)came of high-school age, big schools promised economic efficiency, a greater choice of courses, and, of course, better football teams. Only years later did we understand the trade-offs this involved: the creation of lumbering bureaucracies(官僚机构), the difficulty of forging personal connections between teachers and students. SAT scores began dropping in 1963; today, on average, 30 percent of students do not complete high school in four years, a figure that rises to 50 percent in poor urban neighborhoods. While the emphasis on teaching to higher, test-driven standards embodied in No Child Left Behind resulted in significantly better performance in elementary (and some middle) schools, high schools for a variety of reasons seemed stuck in a rut.

Size isn't everything, but it does matter, and the past decade has seen a noticeable countertrend toward smaller schools. This has been fostered, in part, by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has invested $$1.8 billion in American high schools, helping to open about 1,000 small schools—most of them with about 400 kids each, with an average enrollment of only 150 per grade. About 500 more are on the drawing board. Districts all over the country are taking notice, along with mayors in cities like New York, Chicago, Milwaukee and San Diego. The movement includes independent public charter schools, such as No. 1 BASIS in Tucson, with only 120 high-schoolers and 18 graduates this year. It embraces district-sanctioned magnet schools, such as the Talented and Gifted School, with 198 students, and the Science and Engineering Magnet, with 383, which share a building in Dallas, as well as the City Honors School in Buffalo, N.Y., which grew out of volunteer evening seminars for students. And it includes alternative schools with students selected by lottery(抽签), such as H-B Woodlawn in Arlington, Va. And most conspicuous of all, there is the phenomenon of large urban and suburban high schools that have split up into smaller units of a few hundred, generally housed in the same sprawling grounds that once boasted thousands of students all marching to the same band.

Hillsdale High School in San Mateo, Calif., is one of those, ranking No. 423—among the top 2 percent in the country—on NEWSWEEK's annual ranking of America's top high schools. The success of small schools is apparent in the listings. Ten years ago, when the first NEWSWEEK list based on college-level test participation was published, only three of the top 100 schools had graduating classes smaller than 100 students. This year there are 22. Nearly 250 schools on the full NEWSWEEK list of the top 5 percent of schools nationally, available on Newsweek.com, had fewer than 200 graduates in 2007.

Although many of Hillsdale's students came from affluent households, by the late 1990s average test scores were sliding and it had earned the unaffectionate nickname(绰号) "Hillsjail." Jeff Gilbert, a Hillsdale teacher who became principal last year, remembers sitting with other teachers watching students file out of a graduation ceremony and asking one another in astonishment, "How did that student graduate?"

So in 2003 Hillsdale remade itself into three "houses," romantically designated Florence, Marrakech and Kyoto. Each of the 300 arriving ninth graders are randomly assigned to one of the houses, where they will keep the same four core subject teachers for two years, before moving on to another for 11th and 12th grades. The closeness this system fosters was reinforced by the institution of "advisory" classes. Teachers meet with students in groups of 25, five mornings a week, for open-ended discussions of everything from homework problems to bullying and bad Saturday-night dates. The advisers also meet with students privately and stay in touch with parents, so they are deeply invested in the students' success. "We're constantly talking about one another's advisees, " says English teacher Chris Crockett. "If you hear that yours isn't doing well in algebra, or see them sitting outside the dean's office, it's like a personal failure." Along with the new structure came a more rigorous academic program; the percentage of freshmen taking biology jumped from 17 to 95. "It was rough for some, but by senior year, two thirds have moved up to physics," says Gilbert. "Our kids are coming to school in part because they know there are adults here who know them and care for them." But not all schools show advances after downsizing, and it remains to be seen whether smaller schools will be a panacea.

The NEWSWEEK list of top U.S. high schools was compiled this year, as in years past, according to a single metric, the proportion of students taking college-level exams: Cambridge, International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement. We count the total number of these tests taken at a school by all students each May, and divide by the number of graduating seniors. Any school with a ratio of 1.000 or higher is placed on the NEWSWEEK list. Over the years this system has come in for its share of criticism for its simplicity. But that is also its strength: it's easy for readers to understand, and to do the arithmetic for their own schools if they'd like.

Ranking schools within the list is always controversial, and this year a group of 38 superintendents(地区教育主管) from five states wrote to ask that their schools be excluded from the calculation. "It is impossible to know which high schools are 'the best' in the nation," their letter read, in part. "Determining whether different schools do or don't offer a high quality of education requires a look at many different measures, including students' overall academic accomplishments and their subsequent performance in college, and taking into consideration the unique needs of their communities."

In the end, the superintendents agreed to provide the data we sought, which is, after all, public information. (A list of all the schools can be found on Newsweek.com, along with a list of elite schools, whose lack of average students disqualified them from the main list.) There is, in our view, no real dispute here; we are all seeking the same thing, which is schools that better serve our children and our nation by encouraging students to tackle tough subjects under the guidance of gifted teachers. And if we keep working toward that goal, someday, perhaps, a list won't be necessary.

2012年6月英语四级快读阅读又选自《The Daily Beast》(《每日野兽》,美国新闻网站,由《纽约客》前总编蒂娜·布朗创办)这是该网站2008年的一篇文章,基本一字未改.



快速阅读答案:
1. A) ensuring no child is left behind.

2. B) students performances declined.

3. D) they are mostly small in size.

4. A) some large schools have split up into smaller ones.

5. D) their college-level test participation.

6. B) their school performance was getting worse.

7. C) maintain closer relationships with their teachers.

8. Simplicity(注意要大写)

9. many different measures

10. tough subjects

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